COX regression studies was utilized to adjust getting variables got statistical difference between Desk step one, such as decades, intercourse, Body mass index, sides circumference, LDL, TG, and you will FBG
Table 2 presents the data when only the 704 patients with high-risk plaques were considered (326 in the MS group European Sites dating site and 378 in the non-MS group). 288) and gender (P = 0.577) between the two groups. Pharmacological treatment of hypertension (P = 0.501), diabetes(P = 0.069), hyperlipidemia(P = 0.132), aspirin (P = 0.112), and statins (P = 0.231) also showed no significant difference between the two groups. The hsCRP levels in the MS group were significantly higher than those in the non-MS group, and the differences were statistically significant (8.0 ± 2.7 mg/l vs. 7.1 ± 3.2 mg/l, P<0.001). In terms of the imaging characteristics of high-risk plaques in the two groups, the ratio of positive remodeling, spot-like calcification and napkin ring signs in the MS group were significantly higher than that in the non-MS group, and the difference was statistically significant (66.3% vs. 54.2%, P = 0.001; 65.3% vs 54.8%, P = 0.004; 50.6% vs. 40.7%, P = 0.010).
All the patients were followed up by telephone and outpatient service for 36 months. All Patients were encouraged to practice heart-healthy lifestyle behaviors , including: (1) Consume a dietary pattern that emphasizes intake of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains; includes low-fat dairy products, poultry, fish, legumes, nontropical vegetable oils, and nuts; (2) Limits intake of sodium, sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and red meats. (3) Counseling to reduce sodium intake by an average of 1150 mg/d. Engage in 2 h and 30 min per week of moderate-intensity physical activity. With a loss rate of 6.1%, 30 patients in the MS group and 48 patients in the non-MS group were lost to follow-up. Finally, 144 patients in the MS group had MACEs during the follow-up period (27.5%), while 76 patients in the non-MS group had MACEs during the follow-up period (11.7%), and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). For those who had high risk plaques, 96 patients in the MS group had MACEs during the follow-up period (29%), while 57 patients in the non-MS group had MACEs during the follow-up period (15%), and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). (Tables 1 and 2).
The proportional hazard assumption was checked by the Schoenfeld residual global test, and there was no breach of that hypothesis (P = 0.159). Variance inflation factors were all < 4.0 indicated that there exist no significant interactions between the variables (Table 1). In the whole population, MS (HR = 2.128, 95%CI: 1.524–2.970, P < 0.001), presence of high-risk plaques (HR = , 95%CI: 7.749–, P < 0.001) and hsCRP (HR = 1.629, 95%CI: 1.128–2.352, P = 0.009) were related to an increased risk of MACEs in patients with risk factors for coronary heart disease. Of the metabolic syndrome components, abdominal obesity (HR = 1.264, 95%CI:0.823–0.908, P = 0.033), hyperglycemia (HR = 1.567, 95%CI:1.096–2.639, P = 0.015), high blood pressure (HR = 1.700, 95%CI:0.297–0.728, P = 0.018) and hyperlipidemia (HR = 1.634, 95%CI:0.431–0.933, P = 0.021) were related to an increased risk of MACEs at 36 months. (Table 3).
Adjusted for statistically significant variables in Table 2 such as age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, HDL, TG, FBG, hsCRP, positive remodeling, spotty calcification, napkin ring sign, MS (HR = 2.265, 95%CI: 1.629–3.150, P < 0.001) and hsCRP (HR = 1.267, 95%CI: 1.191–1.348, P = 0.004) remained independent risk factors for MACEs in patients with high-risk coronary plaques at 36 months. Of the metabolic syndrome components, abdominal obesity (HR = 1.526, 95%CI:1.118–2.082, P = 0.008), hyperglycemia (HR = 1.640, 95%CI:0.460–0.890, P = 0.003) and high blood pressure (HR = 1.405, 95%CI:0.264–0.620, P < 0.001) were related to an increased risk of MACEs. (Table 4). We also tested the proportional hazard assumption by using Schoenfeld residual test and found no breach of that hypothesis (P = 0.116); Variance inflation factors were all < 4.0 so that there exist no significant interactions between the variables. (Table 2) Fig. 2 shows the number of patients with and without high-risk plaques according to the number of components of the metabolic syndrome they exhibited. As the number of MS components increased, the ratio of patients with high-risk plaques increased relative to the number without high-risk plaques.